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By Krista Ratcliffe
One of many few authors to outline and concentrate on feminist theories of rhetoric, Krista Ratcliffe takes Bathsheba’s limitation as her controlling metaphor: "I have the sentiments of a woman," says Bathsheba Everdene in Hardy’s faraway from the Madding Crowd, "but in simple terms the language of men." even supposing men and women have diverse relationships to language and to one another, conventional theories of rhetoric don't foreground such gender alterations, Ratcliffe notes. She argues that feminist theories of rhetoric are wanted if we're to acknowledge, validate, and deal with Bathsheba’s issue. Ratcliffe argues that simply because feminists typically haven't conceptualized their language theories from the viewpoint of rhetoric and composition reviews, rhetoric and composition students needs to build feminist theories of rhetoric by means of utilizing numerous interwoven innovations: improving misplaced or marginalized texts; rereading conventional rhetoric texts; extrapolating rhetorical theories from such nonrhetoric texts as letters, diaries, essays, cookbooks, and different assets; and developing their very own theories of rhetoric. concentrating on the 3rd choice, Ratcliffe explores ways that the rhetorical theories of Virginia Woolf, Mary Daly, and Adrienne wealthy can be extrapolated from their Anglo-American feminist texts via exam of the interrelationship among what those authors write and the way they write. In different phrases, she extrapolates feminist theories of rhetoric from interwoven claims and textual techniques. through inviting Woolf, Daly, and wealthy into the rhetorical traditions and by way of modeling the extrapolation strategy/methodology on their writings, Ratcliffe exhibits how feminist texts approximately ladies, language, and tradition could be reread from the vantage aspect of rhetoric to build feminist theories of rhetoric. She rereads Anglo-American feminist texts either to show their white privilege and to rescue them from fees of na?vet? and essentialism. She additionally outlines the pedagogical implications of those 3 feminist theories of rhetoric, therefore contributing to ongoing discussions of feminist pedagogies. conventional rhetorical theories are gender-blind, ignoring the truth that ladies and males occupy diversified cultural areas and that those areas are additional advanced via race and sophistication, Ratcliffe explains. Arguing that matters reminiscent of who can speak, the place possible speak, and the way you may speak emerge in everyday life yet are frequently omitted in rhetorical theories, Ratcliffe rereads Roland Barthes’ "The outdated Rhetoric" to teach the restrictions of classical rhetorical theories for girls and feminists. learning areas for feminist theories of rhetoric within the rhetorical traditions, Ratcliffe invitations readers not just to query how ladies were positioned as part of— and aside from—these traditions but in addition to discover the consequences for rhetorical historical past, conception, and pedagogy. In extrapolating rhetorical theories from 3 feminist writers no longer in most cases thought of rhetoricians, Ratcliffe creates a brand new version for interpreting women’s paintings. She situates the rhetorical theories of Woolf, Daly, and wealthy inside present discussions approximately feminist pedagogy, rather the interweavings of serious considering, studying, and writing. Ratcliffe concludes with an software to instructing.
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Extra resources for Anglo-American feminist challenges to the rhetorical traditions: Virginia Woolf, Mary Daly, Adrienne Rich
What becomes visible is how, from an Anglo-American woman's perspective, language affects and is affected by sex and gender. 17 But because sex and gender do not exist in a vacuum, they emerge as a productive means of demystifying and critiquing power relations within the complex cultural matrix. Thus, Anglo-American feminist theories of rhetoric recognize, validate, and address Bathsheba's dilemma by contextualizing gendered discursive practices and by questioning their interwoven claims and strategies as well as their assumptions and implications.
Dalloway for Marlene Longenecker's "Woman as Hero" seminar and Aristotle's Rhetoric for Ed Corbett's history of rhetoric survey. Although it has since crossed my mind that the history of rhetoric course could easily have been retitled "Man as Hero," I remember being equally excited about both classes. And as the quarter wore on, my excitement remained, but it became accompanied by perplexity and then by frustration. Where were women's voices in the history of rhetoric? I would like to say that my quarter ended with a nice, neat conclusion.
At the same time, this social function works from assumptions that limit the rhetorical potential of women and feminists, as evidenced by the following questions that should inform feminist theories of rhetoric: What happens to gender when class is the predominant cut made across the social? What happens when the matrix of the social is problematized by sex and gender as a means of interrogating class, race, sexual orientation, religious preference, geography, and so on? How does rhetoric function outside the "ruling class," outside racial barriers, outside geographical circles, and the like?
Anglo-American feminist challenges to the rhetorical traditions: Virginia Woolf, Mary Daly, Adrienne Rich by Krista Ratcliffe