Analytical Characterization of Aluminum, Steel, and - download pdf or read online
By D. Scott MacKenzie, George E. Totten
Instead of an experimental advisor for particular thoughts, this instruction manual bargains an summary of quite a lot of characterization methodologies valuable to fabrics scientist, engineers, and complex scholars. MacKenzie (a technical expert in Pennsylvania) and Totten (mechanical and fabrics engineering, Portland kingdom U.) introduce tools particular to comparing aluminum-, steel-, and iron-based superalloys, yet appropriate to different fabrics. overseas members to sixteen chapters learn the microstructures of those fabrics, conventional and more recent alloy training tools, common rules, and various tools of texture research for characterizing houses and detecting defects. a few seven hundred photomicrographs contain an atlas of microstructures.
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Additional info for Analytical Characterization of Aluminum, Steel, and Superalloys
3% carbon (de Magalhaes and coworkers). 3% carbon (de Magalhaes and coworkers). Extra soft sheet steels: Grind to 200 grit, immerse in solution A for 3–5 s, mechanical-polish with chromium oxide then with alumina (de Magalhaes and coworkers). Austenitic stainless steel 4 1 1 5 Use at 70 C for 3 min (de Jong). Austenitic stainless steel 4 parts HNO3 3 parts HCl 5 parts acetic acid parts HNO3 part HCl part H3PO4 parts acetic acid First passivate surface by dipping in boiling 4% aq. H2SO4. Then chemical-polish at 70 C for 1 min (de Jong).
This method provides convenience in examining individual specimens during the preparation cycle, without the problem of regaining planarity for all specimens in the holder on the next step. Also, if the etch results are deemed inadequate, the specimen can be replaced in the holder to repeat the last step, as planarity is achieved individually rather than collectively. The drawback to this method is that slight rocking of the specimen may occur, especially if the specimen height is too great, which degrades edge retention and flatness.
Phenolics are inexpensive and offer the advantages of quick mounting and reasonable ‘‘hardness’’; the latter helps in maintaining flatness of the specimen during grinding and polishing. Although the term ‘‘hardness’’ is used, and metallographers talk about matching the hardness of the polymer to that of the specimen, this is incorrect. The hardness, as defined by standard tests, such as the Rockwell or Vickers, of plastics is very low, much lower than any steel specimen. What is really meant is the abrasion characteristics of the polymer – how well does it grind and polish relative to the steel specimen embedded in it.
Analytical Characterization of Aluminum, Steel, and Superalloys by D. Scott MacKenzie, George E. Totten