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Multiple materials can be co-deposited in one chamber without the crosscontamination problems commonly experienced in VTE systems. Compared to VTE, OVPD offers better control of the mask–substrate distance. Because the mask is above the substrate, the thickness can be dictated by the pattern instead of the need for rigidity. This allows precise, reproducible pixel profiles to be obtained. The showerheads of the process chamber can be designed to maintain a constant source–substrate distance, so OVPD may be more easily scaled to larger substrate sizes.
By adjusting details of the technique, it is possible to grow SWNTs or MWNTs. Laser ablation Laser vaporisation uses a pulsed or continuous laser to vaporise a graphite target in an oven at 1,200°C. The main difference between continuous and pulsed lasers is that the pulsed laser demands a much higher light intensity (100kW/cm2 compared with 12kW/ cm2). The oven is filled with helium or argon gas to keep the pressure at 67kPa. A very hot vapour plume forms, then expands and cools rapidly. As the vaporised species cool, small carbon molecules and atoms quickly condense to form larger clusters, possibly including fullerenes.
The CNTs are multiwalled. ACCVD Alcohol catalytic CVD (ACCVD) is being intensively developed for low-cost, large-scale production of high-quality SWNTs. It uses evaporated alcohols, methanol and ethanol over iron and cobalt catalytic metal particles supported with zeolite. It has a relatively low minimum temperature of about 550°C. It seems that hydroxyl radicals, from reacting alcohol on catalytic metal particles, remove carbon atoms with dangling bonds, which are obstacles to creating high-purity SWNTs.
Advances in Photonics for Lighting and Energy by Pira International Ltd