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12(a). The traction characteristic F(v) of EVs with dc motors and step flux weakening makes a set of curves with a number of steady-state operating points (accelera- tion = 0) A1 , B1 , C1 for train W 1 , A2 , B2 , C2 , D2 for train W 2 . . For an inverter-supplied ac-motor-driven locomotive, the area of operation is limited only by these curves [Fig. 12(b)], so the possible steady-state operating points lie on the curves W 1 to W 5 below the limiting characteristic of the maximum F(v). Equation for an Electric Vehicle Motion.

There are different types of current collectors (CCs) used: trolley collector [Fig. 2(a)], shoe-type [Fig. 2(b)], bow collector, and pantograph (Fig. 19). The pantograph’s pan head is made of Cu, graphite, or metal-plated carbon with addition of lubricant. During running of the EV its pantograph, pushed by a force F, raises the contact wire (CW) to a height h that depends on F, the CW’s elasticity, the speed of the vehicle, the vibration of the vehicle, and the pantograph’s mass. (In Fig. 19 two positions of the pantograph are shown: at the point A close to the support, and at B, the midspan of the OC, with heights denoted respectively as hA and hB ) The total force F is the sum of the following forces: 30 GROUND TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Fig.

22 GROUND TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS The self-impedance zr of a rail may be described by the following simplified equation (5): where µo = 4 π × 10 − 7 H/m, µr = relative permeability [for a ferromagnetic conductor with significant current change, see Table 6(a) (5)] ρr = resistivity of a rail [ ·m], ω = 2πf with f = frequency [Hz] Re = radius of an equivalent circular cross section for a rail =L/2π [m] where L = length of the perimeter of a cross section of a rail [m] The internal impedance per unit length of a conductor 5 is where µr = 1 for Al and Cu.

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62.Vehicular Technology by John G. Webster (Editor)

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