Download PDF by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and: 2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (I-P Edition)
By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
This guide covers the refrigeration gear and platforms for functions except human convenience. This e-book comprises info on cooling, freezing, and storing meals; business functions of refrigeration; and low-temperature refrigeration. essentially a reference for the training engineer, this quantity can be beneficial for someone all in favour of cooling and garage of meals items. This version contains new chapters: Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration structures and Terminology of Refrigeration. additionally new for this quantity are bankruptcy order and groupings which were revised for extra logical circulation and use.
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Additional info for 2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (I-P Edition)
Each application requires a lubricant that meets specific temperature and miscibility characteristics. Lubricants include mineral oils, alkyl benzene, polyalphaolefin (PAO), polyol ester (POE), and polyalkyl glycol (PAG). The development of a transcritical CO2 system requires specialty lubricants because of the high pressure and thus higher bearing loads. Antiwear properties and extreme pressures create a challenge to provide a lubricant that achieves compressor longevity. Cascade systems can use more traditional oils, and it may be possible to reduce the risk of error by using the same lubricant in both sides of the cascade.
The high-stage system absorbs the heat of rejection from the low stage by evaporating the high-stage refrigerant. There are several configuration of the cascade heat exchanger. Industrial applications use conventional shell-and-tube, welded plate-in-shell, and plate-and-frame heat exchangers. To reduce the risk of cross-contamination, some projects use shell-and-tube heat exchangers with double tube sheets, which are significantly more expensive than single-tube sheet heat exchangers. In commercial applications system capacity influences design criteria; equipment options include brazed-plate, tube-in-tube, coaxial, shell-and-tube, and plate and frame heat exchangers.
The United Kingdom), the STEL is lower, at 15,000 ppm. 9°F. All parts of a charged CO2 refrigerating system are above atmospheric pressure. Do not attempt to break piping joints or to remove valves or components without first ensuring that the relevant parts of the system have been relieved of pressure. When reducing pressure or transferring liquid carbon dioxide, care is necessary to guard against blockages caused by solid carbon dioxide, which forms at pressures below 75 psia. If a blockage occurs, it must be treated with caution.
2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (I-P Edition) by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers